ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ANIMALS PDF

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Extraordinary animals: an encyclopedia of curious and unusual animals / by Ross Piper ; Illustrations by Mike Shanahan. p. cm. ISBN –0–– –6. Recommended citation: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects, edited by Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garri-. second edition in pdf online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get animals a visual encyclopedia second edition.


Encyclopedia Of Animals Pdf

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Appendices. 3. Gernot Minke. Building with Earth. Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. Birkhäuser – Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia. PDF | On Jan 1, , Falah Al-Ani and others published Encyclopedia of Arabian Animals. Animal Encyclopedia: 4 Books On Mammals. Animal Life Encyclopedia, edited by B. Grzimek. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,. New York. Vol. 10, Mammals 1,

Now they are considered to When insects are in short supply, the yellow-grey with black stripes, except for aardwolf may turn to other prey; mice, be members of the Hyaenidae but forming a the legs, which are black below the small birds and eggs of ground-nesting separate genus. The muzzle is black and hairless, birds are the main victims.

Eating carrion has The reason for the separation from the the tail bushy and black-tipped. The hair been reported, but it is more likely that the true hyaenas is their insectivorous habits.

Accusations feeding on termites than aardvarks weak the animal is frightened it erects the of killing lambs and chickens may be true claws and no palisade of bristles guarding in the case of very hungry individuals, but eyes and nostrils the aardwolves still show hair around the neck or, in extreme normally aardwolves in captivity refuse even considerable differences from their carni- cases, along the whole back.

This is probabh due vorous relatives. The hyaenas are hunters The name is Afrikaans for 'earth-wolf. The aard- Distribution and habits small. Thus, although they may be able to wolfs teeth, by contrast, are a sorry sight. The aardwolf ranges throughout southern kill a lamb with their dog-like canine teeth, Apart from the fairly large canines, they are and eastern Africa as far north as Somali.

An aardwolfs skull gives frequently in sandy plains or bush country. Breeding cycle the impression of an animal having died of It is rarely seen, since it is a nocturnal A single litter of two to four is born each old age and worn-down teeth. The gestation period possible ways. Either they once had but have The burrow consists of two or more sharply ranges from 90 to days.

The young are now lost the carnivorous features of the winding tunnels 25 30 ft long, leading to born blind. The aardwolf's main enemy is man, who Little is known about aardwolves' habits.

The natural enemies ot the aardwoli are Abalone A genus of single-shelled molluscs related to the limpets. Also known as ormer, sea ear, or earshell, the abalone four syllables, the final e being sounded somewhat resembles a snail, the body being little more than a muscular foot with a head at one end, bearing a pair of eyes and sensory tentacles.

The body is also fringed with tentacles. Over the top of the shell lies a line of holes, through which ivater is exhaled after it has been drawn in under the shell and over the gills to extract oxygen.

New holes are formed as the shell grows forward, while the old holes become covered over, so that only a few younger holes are open at any one time, the rest appearing as a line of bumps. Some abalones are among the largest shellfish: they range in size from the 1 in. Enemies everywhere Although mortality is heaviest during the free-swimming stage, adult abalones also have several enemies.

Fish, sea birds, sea otters, crabs and starfish dislodge the abalones or chew bits off them. Their only protection lies in their tenacity in clinging to rocks and the protective camouflage of the shell and foot.

This camouflage is im- proved by the seaweeds and sedentary animals that settle on the shell. Also, it has been found that when young abalones feed on red weeds their shells become red. On the other hand abalones are more vulnerable due to the boring sponge Choria lobata,which erodes holes in their shells and so opens them up to other predators.

Dark pearls, called blister pearls, are sometimes found in abalones. Like the real pearls of oysters, these are formed by the animal to cover up a source of irritation in this case a minute parasitic clam, Phola- A The abalone breathes through the line of V The remarkable teeth oj a radula, the mollusc didea parva, that bores through the abalone's holes, in thetup of its shell. As it grows, new tongue, magnified 1, times by using a deep shell and into its tissues.

This and the large size of the shell make abalones popular with shell collectors, and they are also used for making costume jewellery. The bodv itself is much esteemed as food. The large foot is cut into strips, beaten with a mallet to make it soft, and then fried. If the danger is imminent it runs to its burrow or digs a new one; if cornered, it fights back by striking with the tail or feet, even rolling on its back to strike with all four feet to- gether.

On one occasion, when an aardvark had been killed by a lion, the ground was torn up in all directions, suggesting that the termite-eater had given the carnivore a tough struggle for its meal. However, flight and above all superb digging ability are the aardvark's first lines of defence for, as with other animals with acute senses like moles and shrews, even a moderate blow on the head is fatal.

A creature on its own One of the most remarkable things about the aardvark is the difficulty zoologists have had in finding it a place in the scientific classificationof animals. At first it was placed in the order Edentata the toothless ones along with the armadillos and sloths, simply because of its lack of front teeth incisors and canines.

Now it is placed by itself in the order Tubulidentata the tube-toothed so called because of the fine tubes radiating through each tooth. These teeth are in themselves very remarkable, for they have no roots or enamel. So the aardvark is out on an evolutionary limb, a species all on its own with no close living relatives.

Or perhaps we should say rather that it is on an evolutionary dead stump, the last of its line. What is more, although fossil aardvarks have been found but very few of them in North America, Asia, Europe and Africa, they give us no real clue to the aardvark's ancestry or its connections with other animals.

The termites are so disturbed by having their nestopened that they swarm about and the aardvark then puts its pig-like muzzle into the nest to eat them. It has an 18 in. The aardvark's snout and round, pig-like muzzle earn it the Afrikaans name for 'earth-pig'. Aardvark escape route. Disturbed away from its burrow, the aardvark can escape its enemies by digging at incredible speed.

It forces the soil back with its fore feet. Aardwolf in its rot k m. The speed For defence, aardwolves can put up a African member of the hyaena family, good fight with their long canine teeth and and efficiency with which the long tacky differing from the true hyaenas in tongue sweeps up insects was impressively can eject an obnoxious, musky fluid from having five instead offour toes on the shown when the stomach of an aardwolf that their anal glands.

It con- narrower muzzle. Also, the jaws and tained some 40, termites, although the teeth are weaker than those of the aardwolf was unlikely to have been foraging Insect-eating carnivores true hyaenas.

This gives an Aardwolves resemble hyaenas sufficiently average consumption of at least three ter- for them to be shot by mistake, yet at one The body, somewhat larger than that of a mites per second. The coat is the Protelidae. Now they are considered to When insects are in short supply, the yellow-grey with black stripes, except for aardwolf may turn to other prey; mice, be members of the Hyaenidae but forming a the legs, which are black below the small birds and eggs of ground-nesting separate genus.

The muzzle is black and hairless, birds are the main victims. Eating carrion has The reason for the separation from the the tail bushy and black-tipped. The hair been reported, but it is more likely that the true hyaenas is their insectivorous habits.

Accusations feeding on termites than aardvarks weak the animal is frightened it erects the of killing lambs and chickens may be true claws and no palisade of bristles guarding in the case of very hungry individuals, but eyes and nostrils the aardwolves still show hair around the neck or, in extreme normally aardwolves in captivity refuse even considerable differences from their carni- cases, along the whole back.

This is probabh due vorous relatives. The hyaenas are hunters The name is Afrikaans for 'earth-wolf. The aard- Distribution and habits small. Thus, although they may be able to wolfs teeth, by contrast, are a sorry sight.

The aardwolf ranges throughout southern kill a lamb with their dog-like canine teeth, Apart from the fairly large canines, they are and eastern Africa as far north as Somali. An aardwolfs skull gives frequently in sandy plains or bush country.

Breeding cycle the impression of an animal having died of It is rarely seen, since it is a nocturnal A single litter of two to four is born each old age and worn-down teeth.

The gestation period possible ways. Either they once had but have The burrow consists of two or more sharply ranges from 90 to days. The young are now lost the carnivorous features of the winding tunnels 25 30 ft long, leading to born blind. The aardwolf's main enemy is man, who Little is known about aardwolves' habits.

Also known as ormer, sea ear, or earshell, the abalone four syllables, the final e being sounded somewhat resembles a snail, the body being little more than a muscular foot with a head at one end, bearing a pair of eyes and sensory tentacles. The body is also fringed with tentacles.

Over the top of the shell lies a line of holes, through which ivater is exhaled after it has been drawn in under the shell and over the gills to extract oxygen.

New holes are formed as the shell grows forward, while the old holes become covered over, so that only a few younger holes are open at any one time, the rest appearing as a line of bumps. Some abalones are among the largest shellfish: Enemies everywhere Although mortality is heaviest during the free-swimming stage, adult abalones also have several enemies. Fish, sea birds, sea otters, crabs and starfish dislodge the abalones or chew bits off them.

Their only protection lies in their tenacity in clinging to rocks and the protective camouflage of the shell and foot.

This camouflage is im- proved by the seaweeds and sedentary animals that settle on the shell. Also, it has been found that when young abalones feed on red weeds their shells become red. On the other hand abalones are more vulnerable due to the boring sponge Choria lobata,which erodes holes in their shells and so opens them up to other predators. Dark pearls, called blister pearls, are sometimes found in abalones.

Like the real pearls of oysters, these are formed by the animal to cover up a source of irritation in this case a minute parasitic clam, Phola- A The abalone breathes through the line of V The remarkable teeth oj a radula, the mollusc didea parva, that bores through the abalone's holes, in thetup of its shell.

As it grows, new tongue, magnified 1, times by using a deep shell and into its tissues. Prized for shell and meat The shells of abalones are prized because, although they are superficially rough and dull, cleaning reveals the gleam of mother of pearl.

This and the large size of the shell make abalones popular with shell collectors, and they are also used for making costume jewellery. The bodv itself is much esteemed as food. The large foot is cut into strips, beaten with a mallet to make it soft, and then fried.

The edge of the foot is trimmed off to make chowder. The popularity of abalones and the ease with which they can be collected from the shore has led to stocks being severely de- pleted. In California, which is the centre of the abalone industry, only strict laws have prevented its extinction. As abalones do not breed until they are six years old and per- haps 4 in.

There is a close sea- sonthough it now seems that abalones breed all the year round and catches are Many-toothed tongue for feeding over a radius of 3 ft when he sheds his limited to five a day and can only be taken Abalones are vegetarians, crawling over rock spawn.

To reduce wastage, however, the bv a licence-holder. Their the presence of sperms around her. This does not favourite foods are the delicate red weeds The fertilised eggs are covered by a gela- mean, however, that it cannot be obtained and green sea lettuces, although they also tinous coat and float freely in the sea until outside California, as tinned abalone meat scrape tissue off fragments of kelp that have they hatch a later as minute few hours is exported from Mexico and Japan.

Young abalones trochophore larvae. These trochophore eat the forms of life that encrust rocks, such larvae are top-shaped and swim around by as the coral-like plant Corallina. Within a day the trocho- pieces by the rasp-like action of the radula, phore develops into a veliger a miniature a tongue made up of large numbers of small.

Two days later phylum Mollusca it loses the cilia, sinks to the bottom and , eggs laid starts to develop into an adult, a process class Gasteropoda Some molluscs are hermaphrodite but all that takes several weeks. They reach sexual maturity at six genera Haliotis rufescens red abalone ages in that they are the means bv which years.

The germ cells, or gametes, are shed the otherwise rather sedentary abalones can H.

Stress and pregnancy (prenatal and perinatal)

They differ from sparrows in having slender and finely pointed bills and a well developed tenth. They are generally regarded as being related to the thrushes or the warblers. Tivo accentors are found in Europe. One, the dun nock or hedge sparrow but not in fact a sparrow at all is a rather featureless bird, identifiable by the grey on its breast, neck and head and its dark brown wings.

Its song, which can be heard virtually all the year round, is a hurried jingle rather reminiscent of that of the wren. The other European species is the alpine accentor. This a larger bird, more is. Habits and habitat Accentors are found throughout Europe and Asia.

The dunnock can be seen all over Europe except in parts of the far north and south. In Britain it is common wherever there is suitable habitat except in the north, where becomes rarer it is seldom seen it. Of the several subspecies in Britain and the European continent one is confined to the Hebrides and parts of. The alpine accentor is found on moun- tain ranges from Spain to Japan, extending down to North Africa.

Occasionally indi- viduals wander into Britain. The tvpical habitat of accentors is in mountainous regions, often well above the tree line and up to the snow line. The Himalayan accentor is found breeding as high as 17, ft above sea level, and one race of the alpine accentor breeds up to 18, ft above sea level. However, most species breed in the scrub vegetation at rather lower levels.

Some species are hardy enough to spend the winter at high altitudes, but others migrate downwards. The re- mainder live in forests.

The dunnock is to be found in many kinds of habitats, but especially in gardens, hedgerows, copses and scrubland. Accentors are quiet and unobtrusive, re- maining close to the ground in the under- growth.

If flushed they fly low and in un- dulating fashion to cover. On the ground they proceed by leisurely hops or a kind of mainly just from higher to lower ground In England, the fast- creeping walk, with the body almost hori- and from far north to south. Vagrants of disappearing haw- zontal. The wings are often flicked in a the alpine accentor, however, have reached thorn hedge is a characteristicmanner this is most notice- the Faroes, and the Siberian accentor has' favourite nesting site able in the dunnock during courtship and turned up in Alaska.

Most species in the accentor's family, the Insects in summer, seeds in winter The female makes Prunellidae, tend to live together in flocks. During the summer months accentors are the nest from leaves, The dunnock, however, is usually a solitary insectivorous, eating and insects spiders twigs, moss and grass. In butterflies The male plays no for feeding and a peculiar wing-flicking winter thev live almost entirely on seeds part in nest building display.

There is little migration it is and berries, even picking them out of animal or incubation. They have a finch-like crop and muscular gizzard, and swallow grit to help in breaking up the seeds. Breeding The males sing from rocks or low bushes, sometimes making short, lark-like song flights. Among dunnocks the male plays no part in building the nest or in incubation. The female makes the nest in a rock crevice or in a shrub, out of leaves, twigs, moss and grasses, sometimes with a few feathers dunnocks very occasionally use a lot of feathers for the lining.

Sometimes an old blackbird's or swallow's nest is used. The nest is cup-shaped, and dark blue eggs five. The hen incubates for about 12 days, leaving the nest only to feed.

In other species the male shares in nest-build- ing and incubation. The young are fed bv both parents and fledge in about 12 days. Those of the alpine accentor sometimes leave the nest before thev can flv. Dunnocks have two and sometimes three broods a year. Sings in all seasons In musical parlance an accentor is one who takes the leading part in singing.

We should therefore expect birds called accentors to be outstanding either for their song or for some other feature. In fact they are all relatively inconspicuous birds the name 'dunnock' refers to the dun plumage.

Thev tend to live in inaccessible places and also to great use of cover. Thev feed on insects and other small animals such as. There are few birds with such an they are ird. Nor is the song of an accentor particu- larly loud or distinguished.

Encyclopedia of Animals

But it is per- sistent. The dunnock, for example, has a short, high-pitched song that is heard at all seasons, by night as well as by day. It is most constantly and vigorously repeated when the bird is excited, as when two rival. The dunnock is evidently a very light sleeper and will respond to the slightest disturbance at night with a snatch of melodv: It will also respond by singing to a sudden gust of wind or a scud of rain.

Although the breeding season is not particularly early in the spring, the dunnock's courtship begins in Decem- ber and its song gains vehemence at that time when the weather keeps most birds more silent than usual. In its natural habitat an acorn worm appears as a bright orange or red 'acorn sticking out of the surface of '.

If this is carefully dug out a fragile, earthworm- like animal is revealed. Its length varies from 2 in. The 'acorn' is in fact the proboscis, which is attached to the body by a stalk. At the front of the body, surrounding the stalk, is a cylindrical collar. The mouth, which is covered by the collar, opens into a straight intestine running the length of the body. Behind the collar are two rows of gill slits that connect the intestine with the exterior. In the proboscis is a very simple heart that pumps blood first through a kidney then to the intestine and gills.

There are no sense organs, but only simple sensory cells in the skin. Tunnel dwelling marine animal Acorn worms are to be found from the shoreline to the depths of the sea, down to two miles or more.

Most species live in U- or V-shaped tunnels in the sea bed, while others construct tubes of mud or sand particles glued together with slime. A few that live in deep water move freely over the bottom.

Movement is effected by the proboscis and the collar. These are water-filled bags These unique pictures show how the minute acorn worm larva, swimming at the surface of the sea with surrounded by muscles which contract to itsmillions of tiny cilia, changes gradually into an adult overleaf which crawls on the sea bed.

Then cilia minute whip-like proto- plasmic hairs pump water through open- ings in the walls of the proboscis and collar so that they swell up. This anchors the front end of the animal while the rest is dragged forward by muscular contraction. Acorn worms can also move over the sea bed pro- pelled by the concerted beating of the cilia covering their bodies.

Mud for food As the acorn worm moves around, sea water with mud and sand in suspension is forced into its mouth. The water is filtered out through the gill slits and the solid material is passed on down the gut where any organic matter is digested. The undigested sand is mucus and ejected from bound up in the terminal anus to form a 'worm cast' like that of the lugworm. Some worm also secrete species of acorn slime over the body.

Tornaria larvae The reproductive organs lie in pairs beside the The eggs are laid either along the gills. Some species, living in deep or cold water, lay a few large eggs, rich in yolk, which develop directly into baby acorn worms.

Other species, in warm. A I ft lung acorn worm which uses its acorn shaped proboscis and collar to burrow a U- or or shallow water, lay large numbers of small structure of the nervous system and the rows Y- shaped tunnel in the mud, lining it with eggs with little yolk. These develop into of gill slits. The latter are also found in mucus. It will usually hide by day, emerging at larvae that swim around in the surface the embryos of vertebrates.

On the other hand, acorn worms are also waters before settling to the bottom and becoming adult and worm-like. The larvae, linked with the other groups of inverte- called tornaria, have bands of cilia around brates. So these food into their mouths. As they grow larger insignificant-looking worms could be an more bands of cilia are developed; but evolutionary link between the two main eventually the larvae become too heavy even divisions of animals, the vertebrates and the for these additional swimming organs and starfish group of invertebrates.

So a of their bodies is of special interest. Certain search began for either a theory to explain features give acorn worms an apparent or a missing link to bridge the gulf. The affinity with back-boned animals, the verte- discovery of a number of animals, now brates, to which group man belongs. First grouped together as the Protochordata, there is a stiffening rod. A notochord is One of the more important of these was found in the early embryos of all verte- the acorn worm.

It was first discovered bv a brates, and it is around this that the back- Neapolitan fisherman, ignorant of science, bone is first laid down. The notochord is who found fragments of a strange animal also found in primitive creatures such as the in his net and took them to a zoologist in lancelet. The presence of this structure puts Naples who, after a careful studs, was able an animal in the phylum Chordata.

Acorn to recognise that here was one of the missing worms, with only a short notochord. They can reach nearly I yd in length and are so prized by hunters that the addax is now very rare. Habitat so falls an easy prey lo man and his dogs.

Addax At one time the addax extended across It it. A mounted hunter following at a closely related to the oryxes. Also known as dating from bc show addax and gentle trot will exhaust an addax alter an the screwhorn antelope, it differs from other antelopes wearing collars and tethered hour, and modern hunters in cars can most antelopes in the absence offacial to stakes.

It seems also that the number of blow' one in less than ten minutes. The glands and in the large square teeth, addax a man owned was an indicator of animal is then so exhausted that it can which are more like those of cattle.

Certainly the addax hardly attempt lo defend itself. An adult male standing some 40 in. Now they are much restricted addax's haunts. Yet it was only in that parts and legs; in summer the body and becoming increasingly rare: The head are estimated at about 5, Precise details that this will be easy to put into practice.

During chances of survival adaptation to a is its. X over the nose. Between the horm is a and , in seven zoos throughout the desert habitat. The hooves are short and tuft of long black hairs, and there is a world, 33 offspring were bred.

The tail is There have been two causes of this reduc- sand in the rapid journeys that are a feature short and slender, tipped with a tuft of tion. First, their habitat is being destroyed of desert animals that have to cover large hair.

Both sexes bear horns, the female's mercial projects, in addition to the destruc- Moreover, the addax is able to survive in tion of its sparse vegetation by herds of the very depths of the desert where condi- being somewhat thinner. The hortis are domestic goats. Secondly, the addax them- tions are so extreme that no other warm- like those of the oryx but curve out from selves are being killed by hunters. The horns blooded animal can survive permanently.

The addax able to survive without any free water almost li3 spiral turns, may be attained. Habits The addax's habits are not well known, owing spread and inaccessible to the thinly nature of the population.

If disturbed too often thev may travel so far as to lose themselves in the more arid parts of the desert and die of starvation. In a camel patrol found addax spoor and, nearby, a fresh uninjured carcass of an addax that had apparently died thus.

Sensitivity to disturbance is increased bv the addax's extreme sensory powers. These are well developed, as in many desert animals that live far apart and that would otherwise have difficulty in locating each other. T picall. Very occasion- ally, herds of as many as have been seen. Normally the troops stay in one area, providing there is enough vegetation.

Otherwise thev ma move long distances. Staple diet of grass The movements of addax are intimately related to the distribution of their food, which in turn is related to the weather. They are most likely to be found along the northern of the tropical summer fringe rains, moving north in winter as the Medi- terranean trough system brings rain south- wards.

The addax can tell where the rains have fallen by scenting from a distance where the vegetation has turned green. The staple diet is the Aristida grasses, perennials which may be green throughout the sear, reacting to humid air or rain as the weather belts pass bv. These plants are sensitive even to a single shower of rain, sprouting and remaining green all winter.

Addax are fastidious feeders, eating only certain parts of a plant. When feeding on the Aristida glasses thev crop all the blades to a level height. On the other hand the outer, dried blades of Parnicum grass, the favoured food of the southern addax, are not touched.

Thev take only the fresh green blades, pushing their heads into the middle of the clump, gripping the growing sums The shy desert living addax is now very rare because it is ruthlessly hunted, but at the San Diego zoo and breaking them off with an upward jerk addax are being bred in captivity. Parnicum seeds are also very much favoured. They are plucked by draw- animal identified. The white antelope was ing the stalk through the mouth so that all They beat the censor the addax so any reference to a white the seeds are cleaned off.

As the seeds are During the Second World War, service- antelope indicated the North African present throughout most of the year and men abroad had their letters censored.

Or perhaps it was no more thin layer of mucus. It has been suggested than a kind of game, to beat the censor. At that some of the leguminous plants eaten all events the methods and means used in by the addax secrete viscous fluids which in the attempt were numerous, diverse and turn cause the addax to secrete mucus from ingenious.

This mucus The censors were also cunning, and quite layer eases the passage of the rough vegeta- often a letter reached its destination with tion and will prevent the dry stalks from little of its contents intact.

But one piece of class Mammalia taking up water at the addax's expense. Ameri- family Bovidae Almost nothing is known about the addax's can soldiers wrote home describing a 'white genus breeding except that one young is born at a antelope'. The adder has a relatively stout body for a snake and a short tail. The average male is 21 in. Generally the ground colour is a shade of brown, olive, grey or cream; but black varieties in which all patterning is.

The most obliterated are fairly characteristic marking is the dark. It is often possible to distinguish the. Those which are cream, dirty yellow, silvery or pale grey, or light olive, with black markings, are usually males; females are red, reddish brown or gold, with darker red or brown markings.

The throat of the male is black, or whitish with the scales spotted or edged with black; females have a yellowish-white chin sometimes tinged with red. In the British Isles it is absent from Ireland and the northern isles but is the only snake found in Scotland. It is usually to be seen in dry places such as sandy heaths, moors and the sunny slopes of hills where it often basks in the sun on hedge-banks, logs and piles of stones.

It is, however, also found in damp situations.

It emerges harmless. It a smell-taste organ, picking up is arch-enemies. It is protected by its spines again when the air temperature rises above particles from the air and withdrawing them while it alternately bites and rolls up, until. The duration of hibernation depends, therefore, on climate: In Britain, adders usually hibernate for about days in October-March, depending on the weather. Unlike many other snakes adders do not burrow but seek out crevices and holes where thev lie up for the winter.

The depth at which they hibernate depends, like dura- tion, on the climate: Very often many adders will be found in one den, or hibernaculum. As many as 40 have been found coiled up together, along with a number of toads and lizards. This massing together is a method of preventing. The come congregate in the hibernacula, to female, who is frequently waiting close at. It may be hand, accept any victorious male, if she will that the can detect the scent left from is readv, and a male will mate with an previous vears.

He crawls up behind her and loops It is uncertain whether adders are noc- his coils over her bod , rubbing his chin turnal or diurnal. Their eyes are typical of which has especially sensitive skin on her nocturnal animals in that thev are rich in back until he reaches the back of her neck, the very sensitive rod cells: On the other they are fully developed, and the young are hand, despite these adaptations, adders are born coiled up in a membrane which is often active during the day.

Courtship and ruptured bv their convulsive movements. The vertical slit pupil gives the adder is. The adder's main prey is lizards, mice, voles It is shed a few days after birth. Enemies although poisonous and shrews. Young adders subsist at first The voung are born in August or Septem- Like most animals even those well capable ber and the number ranges from five to Thev are immediately the usually bite only if suddenly frightened. Young defence, man is their chief enemy. This legend Lndoubtedlv many carnivores will take could be due to early observers cutting up adders.

Foxes and badgers kill them, and an ovoviviparous mother and finding un- they have been found in the stomachs of born adders inside. Not knowing that adders pike and eels. Surprisingly, perhaps, the hatch from the egg inside the parent they hedgehog is a great adversary of adders: Its method of killing is to bite the adder, then curl up leaving nothing but a palisade of spines for A black adder. Adders range in colour from the snake to strike at.

It repeats the process cream, through dirty yellow to silvery grey of biting and curling until the snake is dead, or olive male ; and. A I he Anglo-Saxon name adder was for the lizard will be dead within a few minutes, naedre, which became 'a nadder' or 'a or even within 30 seconds; but an adder's nedder' in Middle English. Later the n bite is rarel fatal to humans. There were was transposed, so that we now have an only seven authenticated records of fatalities adder'.

This was a these were children. While the poison A Male I left and female adders are always 'viper' was used to mean any venomous differently mlourea.

England, viper and adder became synony- a while then follows to eai its dead pre mous for the one species viper also being used to describe a venomous or spiteful Dance of the adders person. The mating period is from the end of March The two words have spread with the to early May, though it has been known to English language all over the world, being last until autumn.

In the north of Europe used not only for snakes of the genus lipera.

Adelie penguin Penguins arefound in Antarctica, but not the Arctic, and are not, as is often thought, restricted to the frozen land and sea. Various species of penguin live around the coasts of South America, Africa and Australasia, usually not going far north but staying where the sea is still quite cool. The exception to this is the Peruvian penguin which can be found right along the coasts of Chile and Peru, -where a cold current oj water sweeps up towards the Equator.

The Galapagos penguin lives even on the Galapagos Islands, just on the Equator. With the emperor penguin, the Adelie is.

Other species, including the chinstrap, gentoo and macaroni penguins, live around the fringes of the continent and on the islands; but then main breeding grounds are farther to the north, in sub-Antarctic and temperate latitudes. The penguin is a flightless gregarious bird; a superb swimmer, it is completely adapted to life in water; the -wings having evolved into flippers, and the body become covered with a protective layer of blubber.

Many penguins have distinctive colour- with half an inch of blubber and then the beach, but the penguins miss no chance- ing around the head, sometimes with feathers sleek and glossy. At first the groups to steal them from any unguarded nest.

A fortnight later she returns, back and throat. The eye is distin- At the rookery, which is usuallv situated on while the male goes off to break his fast of guished by a surrounding circle of a rocky headland, each penguin searches some six weeks, during which he will have u'hite that gives the bird the appearance lor its old nest, or if it is breeding lor the lost almost hall his weight. The eggs hatch. The nests after 36 days and for the first few days the are still covered with snow, but the penguins chicks stay under their parents.

The While one parent is guarding the chicks Antarctic environment males usually arrive first and they stand on the other collects food for them, returning On a September or October da on the edge the nest, fighting off other males and waiting with it stored in the crop where it is partly ot the Antarctic continent, with the sea for their mates.

They have a special display digested. Reaching the nest, the adult frozen as far as the eve can see, quite that at once intimidates other males and penguin opens its beak to the chick. The suddenly, a line of dots might appear, attracts females. It is called the 'ecstatic chick then pushes its head into the adult's moving in a straight line across the ice. When all the penguins have arrived and Then, when a month old, thev leave the change shape.

A closer inspection would the pairs have formed it can be seen that nest to gather in groups called cicelies, from show them to be Adelie penguins which each penguin sitting on its future nest is the French word for public nurseries. It have been tobogganing over the ice on then exactly the same distance from each of its was once thought that the adult penguins bellies, using their feet and flippers to neighbours.

Ibis even spreading ensures that stoodaround the creches were spei ial propel themselves.

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When thev reached the that thev do not interfere with each other guardians, looking after the chicks while crack the stood up to get a better view too much and that the eggs and chic ks will the parents were away feeding; but it is across it.

After a bit of jostling the walk not be disturbed. Occasionallv a penguin now known that they are birds that have to the edge of the crack, waddling on their does get in the wav of its neighbours and a lost their eggs and are just standing around.

Penguins fight b pecking Once the chicks have joined the circles flippers tor balance. Eventuall the jump and by beating with their flippers. When the snow melts, nest-building can them. Instead thev lead the chicks awaj These penguins ate on their way to the begin.

The male collects pebbles which he from the creche, making them run over the nesting grounds. They have spent the long remains standing on the nest site.

He drops after thev have been fed. One function of winter on the edges of the frozen seas where each pebble in turn at her feet and she uses this is to introduce the chicks to the outside there is an abundance of food and the ate them to build up a ring around her.

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Usuallv world, for soon thev will be leaving the now in prime ondition, their bodies padded the pebbles are laboriouslv collected from creche and taking to the sea. V Ade'lie penguins tobogganing over the ice on their bellies, using feet and flippers to propel themselves.

Crustacean feeder reaching the cold Antarctic this warm ing the penguin's attention while the other It is at first sight surprising to find colonies current, rich in nutrient salts, wells up to sneaks up behind to steal an egg. Later, the of thousands of penguins in the apparently the surface and the salts nourish myriads skuas wait around the creches for a chick to desolate wastes of the Antarctic; but in con- of minute planktonic plants.

These in turn become separated from its fellows. The trast with the land, the Antarctic seas are nourish the small animals on which the skuas are unable to kill a healthy chick but teeming with life especially with the small penguins feed. The reason for There are no land animals in the Antarctic Again a healthy alert bird will probably be this abundance of food lies in the circula- to menace the rookeries, but a predatorv safe from them and the seals have to be tion of the oceans.

Moving southwards to- sea bird, the great skua, breeds near the content with chasing weakly penguins. In it are the salts, of the penguins whenever the opportunity such as phosphates and nitrates, that are arises. Thev wait for a penguin to neglect Selfish and callous?

Sometimes a seems to credit them not only with a high surface layers sink and decompose. On pan of skuas will work together, one attract- level ot intelligence but with a selfishness. The story as usually told is that the Antarctic, who lectured widelv on his return. Research has focused on the HPA axis for several reasons. One is that there are human data showing that cortisol crosses the placenta. That implies that stressed or anxious mothers who have elevated cortisol may have fetuses who are exposed to elevated levels of cortisol in utero.

If prenatal maternal anxiety or stress did alter fetal HPA axis via early cortisol exposure, then the implications for development would be substantial. That is because of the wide reaching impact of the HPA axis on many areas of functioning, including stress physiology, cognition and memory, immunology and cardiovascular health.

Problems The number of studies linking stress or anxiety to child outcomes is impressive and mostly consistent, but uncertainties remain about the mechanisms involved. Additionally, most of the studies included largely middle-class samples; whether or not the effects of prenatal stress extend to high-risk samples, including samples from developing countries, is unknown and represents a notable gap in the literature.

Research Context Research on prenatal stress in humans follows an established paradigm in experimental animal work dating back many decades. The research context of the animal work is especially compelling, but the translation to human development is incomplete.

That is partly because the precisely-timed, well-controlled nature of stress exposure used in most animal studies does not easily apply to the kinds of chronic stress-exposed families of most interest to clinicians and social policy-makers. Key Research Questions Findings emerging from studies in the U. The questions for research are now: What are the mechanisms by which prenatal stress or anxiety causes if it is causal a range of biobehavioural outcomes in the child?

Are the effects of prenatal stress or anxiety modifiable by intervention in pregnancy or the postnatal period, or by the early caregiving environment? Is it practical to identify which children may be at risk based on a prenatal screening of the mother?

Recent Research Results Research groups in several countries link prenatal stress or anxiety to a range of child outcomes. Experimental animal studies demonstrated that the effects of prenatal stress could be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. One exception is a recent study12 that found that elevated levels of cortisol in amniotic fluid, taken at an average age of 17 weeks gestation, predicted lower cognitive ability in the infant.

More impressive was that this association was entirely dependent on the quality of the child-parent relationship: for children who experienced less than optimal care, amniotic fluid cortisol strongly negatively predicted infant cognitive ability; however, for children who experienced a sensitive-response caregiving environment, there was no association between amniotic fluid cortisol and infant cognitive ability.

Research Gaps Two main gaps remain in the human research on prenatal stress and anxiety and child outcome. The first is confirmation of a mechanism or mechanisms. Cortisol, as noted, is the leading candidate mechanism, but research has yet to show that it clearly mediates the effects of prenatal maternal stress on child outcomes; indeed, evidence of non-mediation has been reported.

Cortisol, and glucocorticoids more generally, have numerous biological functions, including a functional role in childbirth, for example. That is, it is important to understand cortisol as both serving essential, functional and potential adverse roles in human development — a tricky balance that is not yet firmly rooted in how research is conducted.

A second major gap concerns intervention.The female makes the nest in a rock crevice or in a shrub, out of leaves, twigs, moss and grasses, sometimes with a few feathers dunnocks very occasionally use a lot of feathers for the lining.

Mudnest builders. The adder has a relatively stout body for a snake and a short tail. This has never been won. Species accounts appear at the end of family chapters.