ORGANIC CHEMISTRY NOMENCLATURE PDF

adminComment(0)

Short Summary of IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. Introduction. The purpose of the IUPAC system of nomenclature is to establish an international . organic nomenclature are based on the definitive rules published by I.U.P.A.C.1 ( the I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature for Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B and C. Chemical nomenclature is at least as old as the pseudoscience of alchemy, ( IUPAC) and its Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (CNOC).


Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Pdf

Author:KACI WINKOWSKI
Language:English, Indonesian, German
Country:Slovakia
Genre:Technology
Pages:600
Published (Last):17.09.2016
ISBN:562-9-65254-182-3
ePub File Size:20.45 MB
PDF File Size:11.87 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Registration needed]
Downloads:25753
Uploaded by: RICKIE

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Nomenclature All organic compounds are made up of at least carbon and hydrogen. Carbon is a special element because it . The IUPAC system of nomenclature was established at various functional classes organic compounds, as well as the relationship between compounds that . vide basic rules and examples for naming monofunctional compounds. However, students of more advanced organic chemistry courses and graduate students.

The d Name side chains in the usual way. For example, a chlorine 5 6 substituent would have a higher priority than a CH3- which in turn would have a higher priority CH3 CH3 Emethylpentene than a H-.

Nomenclature of Aldehydes & Ketones

If they are on opposite sides then the prefix is E Cl CH3 Echloromethylpentenol from 'entgegen' meaning 'opposite'. The group priority is then assigned based location number. Zchlorobutene The "e" is omitted before a vowel or a "y". The prefixes are as follows: The name of every organic molecule containing a functional group whose name appears as Group Prefix a suffix may be thought of as made up of four parts: F- fluoro Numbers Prefixes Stem Suffix Cl- chloro Locates the Substituents in The name of the Identifes the Br- bromo substituents in alphabetical order pricipal longest principal I- iodo the molecule chain functional group NO2- nitro The Principal Functional Group PFG whose suffix name is used is selected from Table 2 The list is in order of decreasing priority.

Examples Table 2.

CCl4 CBr4 carbon tetrabromide 11 12 A. Ethers and Thioethers a The chain must contain the maximum number of principal functional group s ; In the naming of ethers as alkyloxy derivatives of alkanes, it is general practice to shorten then the names of compounds containing four or less carbons to alkoxy derivatives i. An alternative system for naming ethers or thioethers is to name the alkyl groups on oxygen sulfur and list them in alphabetical order as separate words before the name "ether" or B.

Naming the Principal Chain sulfide. Examples Table 3. Alternatively, the alcoholates may be named as alkyloxides dropping the "yl" syllable for the first four members as in ether naming. Acids, Salts of Acids and Acid Anhydrides succinic acid butanedioic acid HO C CH2 CH2 C OH Carboxylic acids are named by identifying the longest carbon chain containing the carboxylic acid functional group and using this carbon chain as the stem for the carboxylic acid name.

O O The ending "-anoic acid" is added to the stem to indicate that the compound is a carboxylic acid. Acid Halides anhydride. When unsymmetrical, the two acid groups are named as separate words in Acid halides are maned by replacing the "-ic acid" ending of the parent carboxylic acid with alphabetical order and the word anhydride is added.

The purpose of the IUPAC system of nomenclature

CH3 When there are substituents on the N atom, these are named using N-alkyl or N,N-dialkyl as prefixes note N or N,N are italicised immediately before the main chain name. Esters O The alkyl alkenyl etc. Ketones J. Amines and Ammonium Salts Ketones are named by adding the suffix "-one" to the stem of the parent carbon chain. The systematic method of naming amines, whereby "-amine" is added to the principal chain name is, in practice, only rarely used and an older method is in common I.

Examples accepted use. Amines are named as derivatives of ammonia.

The longest chain attached CH3 C CH2 CH3 butanone to the nitrogen atom is named in the usual way for an alkyl group the carbon attached to the nitrogen is carbon 1. The alkyl name for the longest stem is then added to the suffix "amine". Note that the N- system is not used and the four alkyl groups attaached to N are listed alphabetically.

Nomenclature of Organic Compounds.pdf

Halogen and Nitro- Substituted Aromatics The use of numbers to indicate the position of substituents on aromatic rings is These are named using halo- or nitro- prefixes before the name of the aromatic supplemented in the case of disubstituted derivatives of benzene by the terms: hydrocarbon in the usual way. Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives NO2 The following list gives the trivial usually accepted names for some of the common aromatic NO2 acids and derivatives.

Acid derivatives, esters, anhydrides, amides and nitriles are named in the usual way, Example replacing "-oic" or "-ic" of the acid name with the appropriate endings. Aromatic Amines ring are named using the corresponding group name for the aromatic system as a prefix. Sulfonic Acids and Sulfonic Acid Derivatives more important functional groups as "amino-" derivatives, or as "phenylamines".

Sulfonic acids are named by adding the suffix "-sulfonic acid".

Derivatives of sulfonic acids esters, amides and sulfonic acid chlorides are named by analogy with carboxylic acids. Ketones Simple acyl derivatives are named by adding the trivial acid name stem to "-anilide" etc. Nitriles Cyanides added to the aromatic name. The alternative naming of ethers and amines is a remnant of this system. The following examples suffice to illustrate the system. Alkenes and Alkynes - unsaturated hydrocarbons Double bonds in hydrocarbons are indicated by replacing the suffix -ane with -ene.

If there is more than one double bond, the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of double bonds present -adiene , -atriene , etc.

Triple bonds are named in a similar way using the suffix -yne. The position of the multiple bond s within the parent chain is are indicated by placing the number s of the first carbon of the multiple bond s directly in front of the base name. Here is an important list of rules to follow: The parent chain is numbered so that the multiple bonds have the lowest numbers double and triple bonds have priority over alkyl and halo substituents.

When both double and triple bonds are present, numbers as low as possible are given to double and triple bonds even though this may at times give "-yne" a lower number than "-ene".

When there is a choice in numbering, the double bonds are given the lowest numbers. When both double and triple bonds are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -yne suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene. The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the location of the triple bond s is are indicated between the -en and -yne suffixes.

See below for examples. For a branched unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbon, the parent chain is the longest carbon chain that contains the maximum number of double and triple bonds.

If there are two or more chains competing for selection as the parent chain chain with the most multiple bonds , the choice goes to 1 the chain with the greatest number of carbon atoms, 2 the of carbon atoms being equal, the chain containing the maximum number of double bonds. If there is a choice in numbering not previously covered, the parent chain is numbered to give the substituents the lowest number at the first point of difference.

Alcohols Alcohols are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anol. If there is more than one hydroxyl group -OH , the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of hydroxyl groups present -anediol , -anetriol , etc. The position of the hydroxyl group s on the parent chain is are indicated by placing the number s corresponding to the location s on the parent chain directly in front of the base name same as alkenes.

The hydroxyl group takes precedence over alkyl groups and halogen substituents, as well as double bonds, in the numbering of the parent chain.

When both double bonds and hydroxyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -ol suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene.

The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the location of the hydroxyl group s is are indicated between the -en and -ol suffixes.

Again, the hydroxyl gets priority in the numbering of the parent chain. Ethers You are only expected to know how to name ethers by their commmon names. The two alkyl groups attached to the oxygen are put in alphabetical order with spaces between the names and they are followed by the word ether. The prefix di- is used if both alkyl groups are the same. Aldehydes Aldehydes are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anal.

If there is more than one -CHO group, the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of -CHO groups present -anedial - there should not be more than 2 of these groups on the parent chain as they must occur at the ends. It is not necessary to indicate the position of the -CHO group because this group will be at the end of the parent chain and its carbon is automatically assigned as C The carbonyl group takes precedence over alkyl groups and halogen substituents, as well as double bonds, in the numbering of the parent chain.

When both double bonds and carbonyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -al suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene. The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the -al suffix follows the -en suffix directly.

Remember it is not necessary to specify the location of the carbonyl group because it will automatically be carbon 1. Again, the carbonyl gets priority in the numbering of the parent chain. They are shown in the examples at the end of this list but at this point these names will not be accepted by the computer. Eventually they will be accepted.

Ketones Ketones are named by replacing the suffix -ane with -anone. The position of the carbonyl group s on the parent chain is are indicated by placing the number s corresponding to the location s on the parent chain directly in front of the base name same as alkenes.

Worked example 1: Naming the alkanes

When both double bonds and carbonyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -one suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene. The location of the double bond s is are indicated before the parent name as before, and the location of the carbonyl group s is are indicated between the -en and -one suffixes. Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are named by counting the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain including the carboxyl group and by replacing the suffix -ane of the corresponding alkane with -anoic acid.

If there are two -COOH groups, the suffix is expanded to include a prefix that indicates the number of -COOH groups present -anedioic acid - there should not be more than 2 of these groups on the parent chain as they must occur at the ends.

It is not necessary to indicate the position of the -COOH group because this group will be at the end of the parent chain and its carbon is automatically assigned as C The carboxyl group takes precedence over alkyl groups and halogen substituents, as well as double bonds, in the numbering of the parent chain. If the carboxyl group is attached to a ring the parent ring is named and the suffix -carboxylic acid is added. When both double bonds and carboxyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -oic acid suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene.Need an account?

The first twelve members are given in Table 1. If you only need to twist it, they are not isomers.

There are no spaces in the name. Amines You are only expected to know how to name amines by their common names. The suffix of an alcohol is —ol see Table 4. The longest chain attached CH3 C CH2 CH3 butanone to the nitrogen atom is named in the usual way for an alkyl group the carbon attached to the nitrogen is carbon 1.