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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Testosterone: Action - Deficiency - Substitution | New developments in testosterone action and therapy are summarized here. The two main androgens in the human body are testosterone and drotestosterone, synthesized in the periphery through the action of the enzyme. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Testosterone: Action · Deficiency · Substitution | New developments in testosterone therapy are summarized here by.
Criticisms include some degree of repetition on topics that are covered in more than one chapter, e. This book is aimed primarily at urologists, endocrinologists, clinical biochemists and some interested gynaecologists, but would also provide an extremely useful clinical overview for basic urological scientists.
The incidence of sexual dysfunction is greater than we think and the likelihood that a man or woman will present for specialist advice is increasing. Despite this topic being an uncomfortable subject for many patients, details of sexual dysfunction may arise during any urological consultation.
It is therefore important that clinicians dealing with urological problems have a basic understanding of this topic and encourage discussion. The book covers male and female sexual dysfunction, including referral, evaluation and management.
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The psychological and pharmacological therapeutic methods are well covered, along with simple anatomical and physiological descriptions of the science of normal and abnormal sexual function. The section on erectile dysfunction covers the modern pharmacological approach and discusses topical issues, e. Sex therapy, a subject of which most urologists will be ignorant, is covered in much detail. The Chinese eunuch system, with several thousand's existing at a time, continued until the end of the imperial period in The last Chinese eunuch, Sun Yaoting, died at the age of 94 in Only the fact that imperial eunuchs could obtain high-ranking positions and considerable power as well as wealth makes it plausible that adult men underwent this gruesome operation.
During the Ming Dynasty — eunuchs attained outstanding influence and wealth. The prime example is represented by Liu Jin — who is counted among the richest persons in history; he accumulated kg of gold and 9 kg of silver, but eventually his criminal intrigues led to his execution. In the nineteenth century there were still about eunuchs at the imperial court in Beijing.
The impact of peri- and postpubertal castration on the phenotype of these men was described extensively by Wagenseil 7 who in established an Anatomical Institute at the Chinese—German Tung-Chi University in Shanghai where he examined a series of 31 Chinese eunuchs aged 45—57 years.
These eunuchs had no beard growth and sparse body hair and 21 of the 31 had developed kyphosis as a clear sign of osteoporosis. In Greek mythology, castration already occurred among the first generation of gods.
Gaea, mother earth, grew out of the chaos and produced Uranos by parthenogenesis with whom she then generated the titan Chronos. When Uranos prevented Gaea from creating children with their son Chronos, she induced Chronos to castrate his father.
TESTOSTERONE: ACTION, DEFICIENCY, SUBSTITUTION
Quite extraordinary events in terms of reproductive physiology! This episode has been depicted beautifully in a fresco by Giorgio Vasari — in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.
Eunuchs probably already existed in ancient Egypt. From the times of the legendary Queen Semiramis about BC eunuchs were reported from Assyria and the system developed and continued into the Islamic world in the Middle - East and North Africa.
Over centuries, slaves were deported from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Islamic cities and courts and many of the slaves who survived the exhausting march through the desert were then castrated to serve as laborers, guards, administrators and even soldiers.
It has been estimated that the transatlantic deportation of Africans to the Americas between and comprised about This constant drain of manpower effectively prevented economic and cultural development of Sub-Saharan Africa.
In medieval times, slaves were also exported from Europe to the Islamic countries. There were well-established slave routes through Europe and Verdun in France enjoys the questionable historical fame of having been the European center for castration of slaves on their way from the East to the South at those times.
In medieval Scandinavia, castration combined with blinding was administered for high treason, especially when the insurgent was a close relative whom one did not want to kill directly.
As told in the Islendinga Saga, Sturla of the Sturlungar Clan in Iceland castrated and blinded his rebelling relative Oraekja Snorrason in personal communication from U. The androgen receptor: Physiology and pathophysiology Quigley, Charmian A. Behavioural correlates of testosterone Christiansen, Kerrin Pages The role of testosterone in spermatogenesis Weinbauer, Gerhard F.
Androgens and hair Randall, Valerie Anne Pages Androgens and bone metabolism Finkelstein, Joel S. Androgens and muscles Bhasin, Shalender et al.
Androgens, cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis Eckardstein, Arnold Pages Androgens and the prostate Frick, Julian et al. Pharmacology and clinical uses of testosterone Nieschlag, Eberhard et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of testosterone esters Behre, Hermann M.
Clinical pharmacology of testosterone pellet implants Handelsman, David J. Long-term experience with testosterone replacement through scrotal skin Atkinson, Linda E.
Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution
A permeation-enhanced non-scrotal testosterone transdermal system for the treatment of male hypogonadism Meikle, A. Wayne Pages Percutaneous dihydrotestosterone treatment Schaison, Gilbert et al.Kevin McEleny Search for more papers by this author. Wayne Pages Effects on bones, muscles, lipids, hair, the prostate, and the brain are considered in separate chapters.
Nieschlag , Eberhard, Behre , Hermann M. Denmeade Clinical use of testosterone in hypogonadism and other conditions Eberhard Nieschlag and Hermann M. This book is aimed primarily at urologists, endocrinologists, clinical biochemists and some interested gynaecologists, but would also provide an extremely useful clinical overview for basic urological scientists.
Criticisms include some degree of repetition on topics that are covered in more than one chapter, e. In particular, the section on screening is an achievement, fairly representing both sides to the argument in only one page! About this book New developments in testosterone action and therapy are summarized here by internationally renowned experts.
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